Euthanasia

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Treść prezentacji

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Euthanasia
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Euthanasia Euthanasia (or euthanazjaFrom game. εὐθανασία, euthanasia Good death) - the task of the death of terminally ill person motivated by shortening its suffering. Euthanasia is a concept primarily in the field Ethics (especially Bioethics) And right.
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The etymology of the term The concept of euthanasia for the first time appeared likely to Fifth century BC In Comedy Cratinus of undetermined title. Described it this way a person having a good death without explaining the term. Once again, this concept has been used at the end The fourth century BC by another Greek poet -- Meander. The second meaning given the term euthanatosDefine easy death which is having the effect of distance to their own lives.
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The etymology of the term Also in culture Ancient Rome the term euthanasia was present. Suetonius in Lives of the Caesars, Has a description of his death Octavian Augustus Who wanted to die peacefully, painlessly, quickly and above all, consciously, so as to be able to organize his affairs as he got. Thus, in these senses, at the beginning of its history, the term euthanasia meant death, but in such a natural state of health, that it was not connected to the slow dying of grief.
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Breakdown Euthanasia is divided into passive known as ortotanazja and active as murder with compassion. Euthanasia is also misleadingly called the extermination frequented by people with disabilities Nazis during World War II (shares T4). Admissibility of euthanasia is a difficult issue Ethics. It has both supporters and opponents. The conflict comes because of different value systems, which shall be guided by both parties. Opponents of euthanasia consider life as sacred gift from God (mainly active opponents of euthanasia), or consider it to be the highest value. Supporters of the claim that it is important to respect the will of the patient, shield him from suffering, and his right to dignity within the meaning of what he accepts.
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Regulations in the world Euthanasia is legalized in Netherlands (2002), Belgium, Luxembourg (including sick children), Albania, Japan and the U.S. states Texas and Oregon And until recently also in Australia Northern Territory (Australian court has ruled that this issue is only for federal and overturned the legality of euthanasia). Special form of euthanasia is allowed in Switzerland Where one can prescribe a lethal dose of sleeping pills, but the patient must accept it yourself. In other countries, euthanasia is not allowed and punishable as murder or simply a milder.
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Euthanasia in the Netherlands The Dutch law allows euthanasia only if all are met the following conditions: patients suffering is unbearable with no prospect of improvement in the status of the patient request by the patient euthanasia must be voluntary and should be kept to a predetermined time, can not be met if the person is under the influence of drugs, suffering from a mental illness or have been influenced by other people the patient must be fully aware of their health status, prognosis and asserting their rights
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Euthanasia in the Netherlands to be consulted with at least one independent doctor, who must confirm the patients health status and conditions referred to above Euthanasia must be carried out in a medically appropriate way by the doctor or patient in the presence of a physician you must be at least 12 years (patients aged 12 to 16 years old must obtain parental consent) Dutch legislation recognizes the validity of the will of the patients written statement. Such declaration may be used when the patient will be in a coma or in another state, which makes it impossible to agree to euthanasia.
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Euthanasia in Luxembourg In Luxembourg February 20 2008 Luxembourg, the Parliament adopted by a majority of 30 of the 59 votes in a law legalizing shortening life seriously ill persons upon request. It entered into force after the second ballot in March 2009 . The bill was strongly criticized by the Catholic Church (which have a large impact on society Luxembourg), most of the medical and the ruling Christian Social Party. According to the draft decision on euthanasia can only be taken provided that the patient is seriously and terminally ill. Decide on euthanasia can be taken include writing down a will
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Euthanasia in Belgium The Belgian parliament Belgium passed a law legalizing euthanasia in September 2002 year.
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Euthanasia in Albania Albania was the first country Europe that legalized euthanasia - has been the case in 1999 year under amendments to the Law on the Rights of the terminally ill. It legalizes any form of active euthanasia, with the consent of the patient. Passive euthanasia is permissible with the consent of three members of the family of the sick person. Albanian legislation on euthanasia, is criticized by Catholic Church and some environments Pro-life.
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Legal regulations in Poland Active euthanasia is prohibited in Poland, it shall be considered as kind of murder punishable in a milder way. The person making it is now threatened punishment imprisonment from 3 months to 5 years. Exceptionally, the court may apply extraordinary mitigation of punishment, and even withdraw from it is imposed. Liability is a milder condition that injured deprivation of life demanded it, while making euthanasia - acted under the influence of sympathy for him.
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Legal regulations in Poland Provision of Art. 150 Penal Code, Which defines offense euthanatic murder but does not require explicitly that the person requesting it was a deadly sick, but such a requirement shall law. Specific type of crime associated with wide-ranging support for euthanasia is suicide (Article 151 of the Criminal Code), which also includes the socalled. Euthanatic assistance to suicide, a terminally ill person to facilitate the suicide attack.
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Euthanasia in the religious doctrines
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Judaism Jewish the right to reject any measures that seek to reduce human life. Nevertheless, discussing over a few exceptions, for example when people are terminally ill and thus can be euthanized to prevent excessive suffering. Midrash refers to the story of King Saul, who threw himself on his sword to avoid torture. Medieval authorities debated the question of whether prayer is allowed for a quick death, the terminally ill. This prayer is assessed generally positive, but prohibited direct assistance in dying.
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Judaism Modern rabbinical authorities permit the administration of palliatives of pain, although significantly shorten the life terminally ill. However, prohibit injection whether the administration of the measures to accelerate death. Likewise, reject medical interventions that artificially extend life.
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Christianity Ethics Catholic rejects direct euthanasia . In 1995 Pope Jan Pawel II in his encyclical Evangelium VitaeAgain rejected direct euthanasia, but separated from her decision to abandon the aggressive therapy ( certain medical procedures, which no longer correspond to the real situation of the patient, because they are no longer commensurate with the results, which might be expected, or are too burdensome for the patient and his family ). Such a decision to discontinue treatment, the pope clearly separated from euthanasia and suicide. Similar considerations are taken under the ethics Orthodox and Protestant.
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Islam First International Conference on Medicine Muslim (Kuwait, 1981) were condemned suicide and euthanasia. The meeting also voted for the resignation of the method used to artificially prolonging life.
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Buddhism Buddhism does not approve of euthanasia due to its doctrine of karma nor from a psychological perspective. Bad karmanThat determines human suffering (patient), it should take so long until he is exhausted and no longer affect the subsequent birth. If we stop suffering, start afresh in the next incarnation, until exhaustion. If, however, eliminate suffering as a result of bad, negative karma You can be reborn again in a better existence. Buddhist psychology comes from the fact that the death of the preset is filled with compassion, hatred and negative feelings for the suffering patient. Even if the primary motive is to relieve temporary suffering, a good intention turns into action when the decision marked aversion. Although the doctor believes that kill out of compassion, but in fact work with the aversion to suffering. Thus, he raises for himself and for his patients negative karmic energy.
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Buddhism Buddhist doctors also discuss about the exact moment of death, ie when you turn off the apparatus, which is only artificially prolongs life, whereas it is necessary to other patients. It is very important in this context prana (washed - Breath of life). It appears already in the Upanishads, and means life force of man, inherent in the heart. When you disappear, the doctor must abandon its efforts.
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Hinduism Euthanasia is seen as the death of the elected and approved as an escape from attachment to the self that suffers (e.g. due to old age) makes it possible to free oneself from uncomfortable forms of life and move to the next life (reincarnation). Those who take the decision of suicide, and those make euthanasia, should be freed from the evil intentions, passions and selfishness.
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